Obtains predictions and corresponding credible intervals from an object of class 'JointAI'.

- object
object inheriting from class 'JointAI'

- outcome
vector of variable names or integers identifying for which outcome(s) the prediction should be performed.

- newdata
optional new dataset for prediction. If left empty, the original data is used.

- quantiles
quantiles of the predicted distribution of the outcome

- type
the type of prediction. The default is on the scale of the linear predictor (

`"link"`

or`"lp"`

). Additionally, for generalized linear (mixed) models (incl. beta and log-normal)`type = "response"`

transforms the predicted values to the scale of the response, and for ordinal and multinomial (mixed) models`type`

may be`"prob"`

(to obtain probabilities per class),`"class"`

to obtain the class with the highest posterior probability, or`"lp"`

. For parametric survival models`type`

can be`"lp"`

or "response", and for proportional hazards survival models the options are`"lp"`

,`"risk"`

(=`exp(lp)`

),`"survival"`

or`"expected"`

(=`-log(survival)`

).- start
the first iteration of interest (see

`window.mcmc`

)- end
the last iteration of interest (see

`window.mcmc`

)- thin
thinning interval (integer; see

`window.mcmc`

). For example,`thin = 1`

(default) will keep the MCMC samples from all iterations;`thin = 5`

would only keep every 5th iteration.- exclude_chains
optional vector of the index numbers of chains that should be excluded

- mess
logical; should messages be given? Default is

`TRUE`

.- warn
logical; should warnings be given? Default is

`TRUE`

.- return_sample
logical; should the full sample on which the summary (mean and quantiles) is calculated be returned?#'

- ...
currently not used

A list with entries `dat`

, `fit`

and `quantiles`

,
where `fit`

contains the predicted values (mean over the values
calculated from the iterations of the MCMC sample), `quantiles`

contain the specified quantiles (by default 2.5% and 97.5%), and `dat`

is `newdata`

, extended with `fit`

and `quantiles`

(unless
prediction for an ordinal outcome is done with `type = "prob"`

, in
which case the quantiles are an array with three dimensions and are
therefore not included in `dat`

).

A `model.matrix`

\(X\) is created from the model formula
(currently fixed effects only) and `newdata`

. \(X\beta\) is then
calculated for each iteration of the MCMC sample in `object`

, i.e.,
\(X\beta\) has `n.iter`

rows and `nrow(newdata)`

columns. A
subset of the MCMC sample can be selected using `start`

, `end`

and `thin`

.

So far,

`predict`

cannot calculate predicted values for cases with missing values in covariates. Predicted values for such cases are`NA`

.For repeated measures models prediction currently only uses fixed effects.

Functionality will be extended in the future.

```
# fit model
mod <- lm_imp(y ~ C1 + C2 + I(C2^2), data = wideDF, n.iter = 100)
# calculate the fitted values
fit <- predict(mod)
#> Warning:
#> Prediction for cases with missing covariates is not yet implemented. I
#> will report “NA” instead of predicted values for those cases.
# create dataset for prediction
newDF <- predDF(mod, vars = ~ C2)
# obtain predicted values
pred <- predict(mod, newdata = newDF)
# plot predicted values and 95% confidence band
matplot(newDF$C2, pred$fitted, lty = c(1, 2, 2), type = "l", col = 1,
xlab = 'C2', ylab = 'predicted values')
```